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CORPORATE REPUTATION:

PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY’S REPUTATION

By: NAWAF  ALTAMIMI

 

              I.      INTRODUCTION:

 

The subject of corporate reputation has attracted interest among marketing academics and practitioners for the last four decades[1]. Nevertheless, despite the increasing number of studies published in this area, there is no unambiguous, generally accepted definition for the term corporate reputation. Although the term reputation is clearly defined by Oxford dictionary as 'what is generally said or it believed about a person or thing'.

The state of a company’s reputation plays a key part in its ability to meet strategic goals, not least in raising capital. This is particularly important where a firm’s reputation is the outcome of public, media and investor perceptions that have been built and sustained over a number of years.

The first part of this assignment will study what is reputation? corporate reputation is sometimes seen as synonymous with corporate image (Dowling, 1993); as representing outside members’ perception of corporate image (Dutton et al., 1994). Part of the confusion results from the various uses of the term “corporate image” by both practitioners and academics to the extent that even “corporate image and corporate identity are also used interchangeably or imprecisely” (Abratt, 1989).

Moreover, the first part will explore the importance of reputation and why does it matter? And what are the intangible and tangible benefits can be achieved by good or bad reputation?

Furthermore, part one will shed some light on the reputation management and what is the biggest threats to corporate reputation?

Part two will foucs on the pharmaceutical industry’s reputation as a case study. First the assingment will introduce the current situation using the SWOT analyses method,then the paper will suggest some recommendations to Pharmaceutical firms to make some drastic changes to the way they do business if they are to regain the public’s trust in the future.

 

 

Key words: Reputation, Image, Identity, Perception, Pharmaceutical.

 

 

            II.      WHAT IS REPUTATION?

 

Authors in this area have adopted different, sometimes even contradictory definitions for the term corporate reputation.This is confirmed by Fombrun and Van Riel (1997, p. 5) who emphasise the effects of this ambiguity, by stating that the lack of a single common definition partly explains why “although corporate reputations are ubiquitous, they remain relatively understudied”.

 

Many writers conclude that a corporate reputation has two distinctive characteristics, namely that they are: Formed over time; Based on what the organization has done and how it has behaved. In this concept (Fill, 2007, p.435) refers to the individual's reflection of the historical and accumulated impacts as the elements that drives corporate reputation. However, (Fill, p.437) states that the most important dimension which impacts on reputation is the relationship between expectation and action.

Corporate reputation is therefore defined as “the reflection of an organisation over time as seen through the eyes of its stakeholders and expressed through their thoughts and words” (Saxton, 1998, p. 396). Furthermore, Fombrun (1996, p.3) suggests that “a reputation embodies the history of other peoples’ experience with a service provider”. (Fombrun, 1996, p. 72) assigns the following key characteristics to the concept of corporate reputation:

  • a cognitive feature of an industry that crystallises a company’s perceived ranking in a field of other rivals;
  • created from the bottom up as each of us applies our own personal combination of economic and social, selfish and altruistic criteria in judging a company and its future prospects;
  • a snapshot that reconciles the multiple images of a company held by all its constituencies. It signals the overall attractiveness of the company to employees, consumers, investors, suppliers and local communities.
  1. IDENTITY + IMAGE = REPUTATION:

 

Mehta (2008) emphasized that reputation is the identity and image aligned and he agreed on this with Argenti (2007,p.77) who stated that the foundation of a solid reputation exists when an organization's identity and its image are aligned. (Argenti, 2007) suggested that reputation differs from image because it is built up over time and as depicted in (Figure1) it is based on the perceptions of all constituencies.

 

 In spite of the growing attention given to identity and image there is no definitive definition for these terms (Oliver, 2004,p.257). For (Argenti, 1998) Identity is the visual manifestation of image as conveyed through the organization's logo, products services, buildings and all other tangible bits of evidence created by the organization to communicate to its various stakeholders. Ind (1990.p.19) went morefurther beyond the tangible bits and stated that: “Identity is formed by an organization's history, its beliefs and philosophy, the nature of its technology, its ownership, its people, the personality of its leaders, its ethical and cultural values and its strategies”.

 

Argenti (2007) identify image as a reflection of an organization's identity; it is the organization as seen from the viewpoint of its constituencies. Depending on which constituency is involved, an organization can have many different images. And the most important audience and communicators in any company are the employees. (Ind, p. 26).

 

In general, images are categorized according to one of four perspectives. The first focuses on the corporation as the transmitter of images. The second considers image from the receiver end of the equation. The third category relates to the focus of images. This includes the image of the industry or of the country of origin. The fourth perspective is concerned with construed images - in other words, beliefs about beliefs, such as employees' perception of the image of the corporation held by external stakeholders. (Balmer and Greyser,2003.p.174).

 

 

 

(Figure 1). The relationship between identity, image and reputation. From (Argenti, 2007.p. 79)

 

 

  1. DOES REPUTATION MATTER?

 

For ( Doorley, 2007, p.4) a good reputation has both intangible and tangible benefits and it is worth many billions of dollars in many large corporations. A study carried out by Shandwick / Fombrun showed that respondents considered around 20 key factors when forming a view on a company's reputation. Fombrun then clustered these factors into six drivers of reputation: emotional appeal, products and services, workplace environment, vision and leadership, social responsibility and financial performance. (Figure 2) shows the characteristics of each of the six reputation drivers.[2]

 

 

(Figure 2) Reputation’s Drivers.  From Jolly, p.31  

 

To strategists, reputations are both assets and mobility barriers (Caves and Porter, 1977). A strong reputation has important strategic implications for a firm, because, as Fombrun notes, "it calls attention to a company's attractive features and widens the options available to its managers, for instance, whether to charge higher or lower prices for products and services or to implement innovative programs". As a result, (Davies, et al, 2003. p. 65) see that companies with strong, positive reputations can attract and retain the best talent, as well as loyal customers and business partners, all of which contribute positively to growth and commercial success.

 

For (Alsop, 2004, p.4) reputation matters when consumers boycott a company's products to protest unfair labour practices. Reputation matters when a company associated with environmental problems is denied approval for a plant expansion. Reputation matters when a company known for discriminatory practices cannot recruit minority candidates.

·        A Hill & Knowlton study by Yankelovitch quantifies the benefits: easier sales; easier recruitment, easier crisis survival, better employee retention, greater pricing power, stronger stock market valuation, better merger/acquisition potential. (Alsop, 2004, p.8).

Doorley and Garcia (2007) see that as people develop social capital that helps them build relationships and careers, corporations and other organizations develop reputational capital that helps them build relationships and grow their organizations.Chief executives now put reputation on the balance sheet alongside other assets," says Danny Rogers, the editor of PR Week "Reputations can be badly hit at any time. The way you respond to a crisis makes a big difference in the long term" Danny added. [3]

The overwhelming majority (94%) of CEOs say reputation is extremely valuable – “it is a company’s most valuable asset and as important as earnings and share price.  “No CEO says it is not important” Garratt told the TVU conference.[4]

 

From Garratt’s representation [5]

 

Corporate reputation is playing an increasingly important role in terms of the ability of corporations to build and sustain market share. and influence the minds and hearts of customers and stakeholders all over the world. Corporate reputation also significantly impacts upon share values and on the ability of the business to attract and retain excellent employees.

 

Alex Bollen and Roger Stubbs emphasised in their presentation to the Pharmaceutical Responsibility and Reputation Conference[6] that there is a direct correlation between corporate reputation and crucial business issues like:

 

·        Consumers’ desire to buy your products and services

·        The efficiency of your marketing spending

·        Employees’ pride in working for you

·        Investors’ confidence to invest in you

·        Legislators’ inclination to help or hinder you

·        Journalists’ disposition to report positively or negatively about you

·        NGOs’ propensity to work with or against you

Stakeholders’ willingness to hear your side of the story

 

  1. THREATS TO CORPORATE REPUTATION:

 

A brand or reputation may take many years and considerable investment to create but once damaged, it is both expensive and time consuming to rebuild.

Reputations can be lost in a flash. And (Alsop, 2004 .p.7) companies that have failed to nurture and protect their reputations invariably learn a painful lesson: that a wounded reputation isn't easily or quickly repaired.

Warner Buffett told Salomon: 'If you lose money I will understand. If you lose reputation I will be ruthless.' Investors like Buffett know that a good reputation is the most valuable asset a company possesses. (Alsop, 2004 .p.7)

Jennifer Garratt suggested to the Pharmaceutical Responsibility and Reputation Conference a map of the biggest threats to corporate reputation:[7]

 

·        Corporate financial irregularity/restatements

·        Executive/employee misconduct

·        Negative media coverage

·        Domestic/international regulatory investigations

·        Customer-service problems

·        Product tampering/failure, safety problems

·        Key executive/CEO defections or firings

·        Missed quarterly earnings/poor financials

·        Web or special interest activists/NGOs

·        Internal leaks to the media

 

III. REPUTATION OF PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY:

 

For many years, the pharmaceutical industry was highly regarded for its role as a leader in the advancement and improvement of human health. Despite of that the pharmaceutical industry has a reputation dilemma (Chakravarty) [8]. In one hand there is high appreciation by people in need of drugs; on the other hand there is high suspicion of Parma’s greed, dishonesty, fraud. “Recently, the filmmaker Michael Moore, famous for movies that have taken to task gun lobbyists and the Bush administration, is now setting his sights on the pharmaceutical and healthcare industries”.[9]

 The ratings of the pharmaceutical industry have been the most volatile of any industry. Nine years ago, in 1997, the pharmaceutical industry had a net positive rating of 60 percent. This fell fast over the years until it touched rock bottom at minus four percent in 2004. However, in 2005, it jumped up to 13 percent and in 2006 it raisin sharply again at 25 percent.[10]

 

The damage to the industry has been pervasive, resulting in costly settlements on pricing and promotional practices, difficulty in obtaining clinical trial subjects, high-profile drug withdrawals, and an inability to produce and sell product due to manufacturing halts.[11]

 

“There is one great problem that seriously challenges the ability of America’s research-based pharmaceutical companies to continue doing what they do better than any other entity on the globe: research and develop new cures and treatments. In a word, it is trust.” That statement, made recently by Billy Tauzin, president and CEO of Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, captures the core of one of the greatest challenges to the pharmaceutical industry in America and throughout the world: that of restoring its damaged reputation.[12]

 

However, ABPI corporate affairs director David Lewis, speaking at the Pharmaceutical Reputation, Responsibility Conference urged the industry to be more positive. “The industry is not as badly perceived as it thinks it is”. He said.'[13]Lewis added “in fact the industry may well be "shooting itself in the foot" by perpetuating the belief that it is generally poorly regarded, even though new research shows this is not the case”.


In a recent survey, 49% of UK members of parliament described their feelings towards the industry as “mainly favorable,” while the views of 18% were “very” favorable, said Mr Lewis to the Thames Valley University’s second annual conference on pharmaceutical responsibility and reputation. Only 16% of the MPs described their opinions of the industry as “mainly unfavorable” - fewer than the 17% who said they held none of these views.


While the industry has long had to live with negative coverage in the broadcast and print media, the Internet has made the scrutiny of perceived bad corporate behavior much greater and available to “anyone with an opinion and a laptop,” Alex Bollen, research director at Ipsos MORI, told the TVU conference.

 

Simon Smith, Partner at Schillings, the legal Reputation Management experts, commented that 'Corporate Reputational threats are increasing as a result of three key trends arising out of new media; low barriers to entry, a decline in quality of published information and a lack of accountability.

 

 

 

IV. REPUTATION OF PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY - SWOT” ANALYSIS:

 

 

As shown in the table of “SWOT” analysis, the current industry business model “is both economically unsustainable and operationally incapable of acting quickly enough to produce the types of innovative treatments demanded by global markets”.[14]This type of model is causing a serious damage to the pharma’s reputation and trust. 

 

 

 

Strength

Weakness

 

Þ     improve and save lives

Þ     Highly educated and highly motivated workforce.

Þ     Return to shareholders

Þ     Quality

Þ     Customer responsiveness

Þ     Technology/innovation

 

Þ     Low TRUST

Þ     Damaged reputation.(greed, dishonesty, fraud ).

Þ     High R&D costs.

Þ     Poor pipeline of innovative products.

Þ     Deteriorating financial performance.

Þ     Higher prices- too profit-driven

Þ     Lack of transparency

Þ     “Lack of effort” in tackling poverty diseases

Þ     Excessive executives’ salaries

 

Opportunities

Threats

 

Þ     Positive publicity and better understanding.

Þ     Increased transparency.

Þ     More concentrated efforts to communicate the industry’s role in improving human health.

Þ     Research strategies to include sustainability objectives

Þ     Address issues of price

 

 

Þ     Restrict pharma’s ability to recruit the bright young scientists and talented manpower.

Þ     Limit the industry’s influence on political agenda.

Þ     Negative financial performance

 

 

V. REPUTATION MANAGEMENT IN PHARMA:

 

Loss of reputation is the second biggest threat to any company, after business interruption, and it takes an average of three and a half years for the crisis to fade and reputation to be restored. Ms Garratt told the TVU conference.[15]

The industry’s reputation remains a major focus for the ABPI – yet, while independent research shows that the majority of the public have a positive view of the pharmaceutical industry, critics repeatedly question its integrity and trustworthiness.

Pharmaceutical firms need to make some drastic changes to the way they do business if they are to regain the public’s trust and must be seen to be more interested in medicines than market share to avoid even more damage to their image.[16]

Lynne M Copeland [17] suggested nine key areas to be addressed, then monitored and studied.
1. Patients/consumers

2. Risk assessment and management’s program.
3. Brand image
4.Donations and access to drugs
5.Shareholders
6.Employees
7.Chief Executive
8. Media

9. Activists.

 

Moreover, a medical marketing and media recently asked a panel of industry leaders about, what steps the industry should take to counter mounting criticism.  Some of the solutions they offered are:[18]

■ Better educate key decision-makers and consumers about the benefits derived from a strong research-based pharmaceutical industry.

■ Refocus industry efforts to regain physicians’ loyalty, rather than the loyalty of managed care organizations.

■ Strive for a fair public policy to address the cost of pharmaceutical innovation.

■ Keep the response simple, focusing perhaps on such basic ideas as the “total cost of care” concept that everyone can understand.

 

VI. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS:

 

Ind (1990,p.24) suggested that Corporate communication is the process that translates corporate identity into corporate image, without communication the values and strategies of the organization will not be understood or owned and the company will not have any clear sense of identity.

Text Box: Figure 3. Pharma’s stakeholders, From Garratt.
The global pharmaceutical market will more than double in value to $1.3 trillion by 2020, according to a new report[19], but the industry needs to transform itself to make the most of the opportunities. Dr Richard Barker, Director General of the ABPI, urges the sector to demonstrate its value through communication and innovation. “We must engage in media discussion openly and robustly, and we must pursue our goal of bringing new medicines to patients with pride and determination” Barker said. [20]

The strategy to rebuild the reputation of the industry will require a deep understanding of the agendas and needs of all relevant stakeholders (Fig 3) so that expectations can be fully met.

The strategy to rebuild the reputation of the industry should consider:

1.      Restore trust in the industry’s choices and processes regarding drug discovery and clinical development.

2.      Better Communication with stakeholders to educate them about the difficulties of fostering breakthrough medical products.

3.      Address consumer misconceptions about the costs and risks of pharmaceutical product development.

4.      More transparency and establish links so that information can be provided for relevant stakeholders.

5.      Reduce R&D costs significantly.

6.      Tailor sales, marketing and pricing strategies to new audiences and markets; show that its products are worth the money that is spent on them.

7.      Adhering to the highest ethical standards.[21]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES:

 

Alex Bollen & Roger Stubbs (2008) Pharmaceutical Responsibility and Reputation Conference Thames Valley University, 7 March 2008.

Alsop,J. Ronald (2004) The 18 immutable laws of Reputation. London:kogan Page Ltd.

Argenti, A .Paul ( 2007) Corporate Communication.4th ed. New York: McGraw.

Abratt, R. (1989), "A new approach to corporate image management process", Journal of Marketing Management, No. 5, pp.63-76.

Barich, H., Kotler, P. (1991), "A framework for marketing image management", Sloan Management Review, Winter, pp.94-104.

Baines, P,.Egan,J. and Jefkins, F.(2004) Public relations, Contemporary issues and techniques. Oxford: Elsevier.

Coombs, T. (2000), "Crisis management: advantages of a relational perspective", in Ledingham, J.A., Bruning, S.D. (Eds),Public Relations as Relationship Management: A Relational Approach to Public Relations, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc., Mahwah, NJ, pp.73-93.

Davies,Gary.,Chun Rosa.,Rui vinhas de Silva. And Roper Stuart.(2003) Corporate reputation and competitiveness. London and New York: Routledge.

Doorley,J and Garcia F.H. (2007) reputation management- the key to successful public relations and corporate communication. New York: Routledge

Dowling, G.R. (1993), "Developing your company image into a corporate asset", Long Range Planning, Vol. 26 No.2, pp.101-9.

Dutton, J.E., Dukerich, J.M., Harquail, C.V. (1994), "Organization images and member identification", Administrative Science Quarterly, No. 39, pp.239-63.

Fill,c (2006) .marketing communications engagement, strategies and practice.FT/Prentice Hall(4th Edition).

Fombrun, C, Shanley, M (1990), "What’s in a name? Reputation building and corporate strategy", Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 33 pp.233-56.

Fombrun, C.J (1996), Reputation: Realizing Value from the Corporate Image, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MA, .

Fombrun, S, Van Riel, C (1997), "The reputational landscape", Corporate Reputation Review, Vol. 1 No.1 and 2, pp.5-13.

Fombrun, C.J., van Riel, C.B.M. (2003), Fame and Fortune: How Successful Companies Build Winning Reputations, FT Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, .

Grunig, J.E. (2006), "Furnishing the edifice: ongoing research on public relations as a strategic management function", Journal of Public Relations Research, Vol. 18 No.2, pp.151-76.

Gary Davies, Rosa Chun, Rui Vinhas Da Silva, and Stuart Roper(2003), Corporate Reputation and Competitiveness (London: Routledge,) p 61.

Ind,Nicholas.(1990) The corporate image – strategies for effictive identity programmes. London:kogan Page Ltd.

Henslowe, Philip (2003) public relations – A practical guide to the basics.2ed ed. London:kogan Page Ltd.

Jennifer, Garratt,(2008) The Essence of Corporate Reputation.Managing.Pharmaceutical Responsibility and Reputation Conference.TVU,London.

Jolly, Adam(2001) Managing corporate reputations. London:kogan Page Ltd.

John, M. T. Balmer, and Stephen A. Greyser (2003) Revealing the Corporation:  Perspectives on Identity, Image, Reputation, Corporate Branding, and Corporate-Level Marketing : an Anthology .New York: Routledge

Mark Chakravarty (2008) Pharmaceutical Reputation, Responsibility & Sustainability. Pharmaceutical Responsibility and Reputation Conference Thames Valley University.

Manto Gotsi. Corporate reputation: seeking a definition. Corporate Communications: An International Journal. Volume: 6 Number: 1 Year:  2001pp:  24-30

Mason, C.J. (1993), "What image do you project?", Management Review, No. 82, November, pp. 10-16.

Mehta, K (2008) . International Reputation Managemnt. Modul handout . MSc corporat Communication.TVU. London

Olins, wally (1994) Corporate identity- mking business strategy visible through design. New York:Thames and Hudson

Saxton, K (1998), "Where do reputations come from?", Corporate Reputation Review, Vol. 1 No.4, pp.393-9.

Spence, A.M. (1974), Market Signalling: Informational Transfer in Hiring and Related Screening Procedures, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.,

Oliver, Sandra. (2004) Hand book of corporate communication and Public Relations- pure and applied, London: Routledge.

Tench,R and Yeomans,L(2006).Exploring public relations. London:Oearson Education ltd.

Toth . L Elizabeth (2007) The future of excellence in public relations and communication management: Challenges for the next generation. Lawarence Erlbaum associates. Mahawan,New Jersey, London

Theaker,A.(2004) The public relations Handbook.London and New York: Routledge.

Weigelt, K., Camerer, C. (1988), "Reputation and corporate strategy: a review of recent theory and applications", Strategic Management Journal, No. 9, pp.443-54.

 

INTERNET SOURCES:

 

The report, published by pricewaterhousecoopers and entitled pharma 2020: the vision – which path will you take. Available from: http://www.pharmatimes.com/worldnews/article.aspx?id=11062. [ Accessed 10 April 2008].

Innovation, communication, reputation: watchwords for success in 2006. The ABPI’s annual report for 2005 shows an industry high on innovation but low on reputation. Available from: http://www.pharmafield.co.uk/article.aspx?articleID=330&issueID=16.[Accessed 10 April 2008].

Pharma 2020: the vision which path will you take?. published by pricewaterhousecoopers. Available from: http://www.biovalley.ch/downloads/downloads_files/PHARMA%202020%20FINAL.pdf. [ Accessed 10 April 2008].

Peter Claude, a USA-based partner at PricewaterhouseCoopers pharmaceutical and life sciences advisory services group. Available from: http://www.pharmatimes.com/WorldNews/article.aspx?id=10254. [ Accessed 10 April 2008].

HIV / AIDS and reputation management in the Pharmaceutical Industry. Available from: http://www.ethicalcorp.com/content.asp?ContentID=126. Lynne M Copeland works at Kinghills Consultancy. [ Accessed 10 April 2008].

 

MM&M. Jan 2003. Available from: http://offlinehbpl.hbpl.co.uk/Misc/MMM/Features/Survey.pdf. [ Accessed 10 April 2008].

Lynne Taylor Pharma “shooting itself in the foot” over reputation. Available from: http://www.pharmatimes.com/WorldNews/article.aspx?id=13026. [ Accessed 10 April 2008].

Recapturing the vision- restoring trust in the pharmaceutical industry by translating expectations into action. published by pricewaterhousecoopers. Available from: http://www.pwc.com/extweb/pwcpublications.nsf/docid/e8a194168c19de678525726100550b91. [ Accessed 10 April 2008].

Peter Claude, a USA-based partner at PricewaterhouseCoopers pharmaceutical and life sciences advisory services group. Available from: http://www.pharmatimes.com/WorldNews/article.aspx?id=10254. [ Accessed 10 April 2008].

David Handelsman. Pharmaceutical Industry, Heal Thyself. David Handelsman is SAS' clinical research and development strategist, leading the development of clinical research informatics software. Handelsman also serves as SAS' representative on CDISC's Industry Advisory Board. Available from: http://www.sas.com/news/sascom/2005q3/feature_pharma.html. [ Accessed 10 April 2008].

Reputation of Pharmaceutical Companies, While Still Poor, Improves Sharply for Second Year in a Row. Available from: http://www.harrisinteractive.com/news/allnewsbydate.asp?NewsID=1051. [ Accessed 10 April 2008].

http://www.pwc.com/extweb/industry.nsf/docid/2D7C4CC9C75A060985257059001CE3E4. [ Accessed 10 April 2008].

Pharmaceutical Reputation, Responsibility & Sustainability. Pharmaceutical Responsibility and Reputation Conference Thames Valley University,  2008. Available from: http://www.prweek.com/uk/search/article/790594/GSK-allegations-heighten-industrys-reputational-woes/.[ Accessed 10 April 2008].

Burson-Marsteller .Pharmaceutical Responsibility and Reputation Conference
Thames Valley University, 2008.

 

 

 


 

[1]- Manto Gotsi. Corporate reputation: seeking a definition. Corporate Communications: An International Journal. Volume: 6 Number: 1 Year:  2001pp:  24-30

[2] - A few years ago, Weber Shandwick Worldwide approached Professor Charles Fombrun of the Steam Business School at New York University, one of the world's foremost experts on corporate reputation. With Professor Fombrun, Weber Shandwick Worldwide embarked on a major reputation research project, the aim of which was to find out which factors people considered important when forming a view of the reputation of a corporation.(Jolly.2001.pp.29-30)

 

[3] -  Jennifer Garratt, The Essence of Corporate Reputation.Managing Director, Healthcare Practice Chair Burson-Marsteller London. Thames Valley University, 7 March 2008

[4]- Pharmaceutical Responsibility and Reputation Conference .Thames Valley University, 7 March 2008

[5] - Ibid

[6] - Alex Bollen & Roger Stubbs of  “Ipsos MORI”, Pharmaceutical Responsibility and Reputation Conference Thames Valley University, 7 March 2008

[7]- Jennifer Garratt, The Essence of Corporate Reputation.Managing Director, Healthcare Practice Chair. Pharmaceutical Responsibility and Reputation Conference.TVU,London. 2008

10- Burson-Marsteller .Pharmaceutical Responsibility and Reputation Conference.Thames Valley University, 2008.

[8] - Dr Mark Chakravarty Director External Relations P&G Europe. Pharmaceutical Reputation, Responsibility & Sustainability. Pharmaceutical Responsibility and Reputation Conference Thames Valley University,2008

[9]- David Handelsman. Pharmaceutical Industry, Heal Thyself. David Handelsman is SAS' clinical research and development strategist, leading the development of clinical research informatics software. Handelsman also serves as SAS' representative on CDISC's Industry Advisory Board. http://www.sas.com/news/sascom/2005q3/feature_pharma.html

[10]- Reputation of Pharmaceutical Companies, While Still Poor, Improves Sharply for Second Year in a Row. http://www.harrisinteractive.com/news/allnewsbydate.asp?NewsID=1051

[11] - http://www.pwc.com/extweb/industry.nsf/docid/2D7C4CC9C75A060985257059001CE3E4

[12] - Recapturing the vision- restoring trust in the pharmaceutical industry by translating expectations into action. published by pricewaterhousecoopers. http://www.pwc.com/extweb/pwcpublications.nsf/docid/e8a194168c19de678525726100550b91

[13] - Pharmaceutical Reputation, Responsibility & Sustainability. Pharmaceutical Responsibility and Reputation Conference Thames Valley University,  2008. http://www.prweek.com/uk/search/article/790594/GSK-allegations-heighten-industrys-reputational-woes/

 

[14] - Peter Claude, a USA-based partner at PricewaterhouseCoopers pharmaceutical and life sciences advisory services group. http://www.pharmatimes.com/WorldNews/article.aspx?id=10254

 

[15] - Lynne Taylor Pharma “shooting itself in the foot” over reputation http://www.pharmatimes.com/WorldNews/article.aspx?id=13026.

[16] - Peter Claude, a USA-based partner at PricewaterhouseCoopers pharmaceutical and life sciences advisory services group. http://www.pharmatimes.com/WorldNews/article.aspx?id=10254

[17] - HIV / AIDS and reputation management in the Pharmaceutical Industry. http://www.ethicalcorp.com/content.asp?ContentID=126. Lynne M Copeland works at Kinghills Consultancy

[18] - MM&M. Jan 2003. http://offlinehbpl.hbpl.co.uk/Misc/MMM/Features/Survey.pdf

[19] - the report, published by pricewaterhousecoopers and entitled pharma 2020: the vision – which path will you take. http://www.pharmatimes.com/worldnews/article.aspx?id=11062

[20] - Innovation, communication, reputation: watchwords for success in 2006. The ABPI’s annual report for 2005 shows an industry high on innovation but low on reputation. http://www.pharmafield.co.uk/article.aspx?articleID=330&issueID=16

[21] - Pharma 2020: the vision which path will you take?. published by pricewaterhousecoopers. http://www.biovalley.ch/downloads/downloads_files/PHARMA%202020%20FINAL.pdf


 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 

THE BRIDGE TO SUCCESS IN PUBLIC RELATIONS